comparatives and superlatives
definite articles
demonstrative adjectives
demonstrative pronouns
direct and indirect object pronouns
double object pronouns
hacer expressions
noun suffix
passive voice
personal pronouns
por and para
possessive adjectives
possessive pronouns
present tense
preterite tense
ques expressions
reflexive verbs
relative pronouns
subject pronouns
present subjunctive
tener expressions


A conjunction is a word which connects words, phrases, and clauses. Some of the most common English conjunctions are and, but, or, and if.

Las conjunciones y e o

The conjunction y becomes e before words beginning with the sound of i (spelled i- or hi-).
Carlota se puso furiosa e hizo un viaje a París. Carlota became furious and made a trip to Paris.
Luego visitamos unas típicas casas e iglesias antiguas. Then we visited some typical houses and ancient churches.
The conjunction o becomes u before words beginning with the sound of o (spelled o- or ho-).
La gente viaja con pollos u otros animales. The people travel with chickens or other animals.

La conjunción but

Bolivia y Venezuela son países de Sud America, pero México no es un país de Sud America. Bolivia and Venezuela are countries of South America, but Mexico is not a country of South America.
The word sino also means but and is used only after a negative statement which is contrasted with an affirmative statement containing no finite verb.
El cuadro más conocido del Greco no está en el Prado sino en la iglesia de Santo Tomé. The best known painting of El Greco is not in the Prado but in the church of Santo Tomé.
La verdad es que Jaime no tiene sólo una novia sino varias. The truth is that James has not just one girl friend but several.
The expression sino que is likewise used only after a negative statement but is followed by a clause containing a finite verb.
El maestro no solamente daba muchas clases diarias sino que también trabajaba en una fábrica. Not only did the teacher have many each classes each, day, but he also worked in a factory.

Modos de usar la conjunción si

The conjunction si ordinarily means if.
Si la meseta central no es tan alta como las montañas, es mucho más elevada que la costa. If the central plateau is not as high as the mountains, it is much higher than the coast.
When si means if, it is never followed by the future or conditional as it often is in English nor by the present subjunctive.
The conjunction si may also mean whether.
A ver si podemos llevarlas esta tarde al cine. Let's see whether we can take them to the movies this afternoon.
Sería difícil decir dónde hay más belleza, si en su mar o en su campo. It would be difficult to say where there is more beauty, whether in its sea or in its fields.


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Jaime El Sabio