nouns and plurals
comparatives and superlatives
definite articles
demonstrative adjectives
demonstrative pronouns
direct and indirect object pronouns
double object pronouns
hacer expressions
noun suffix
passive voice
personal pronouns
por and para
possessive adjectives
possessive pronouns
present tense
preterite tense
ques expressions
reflexive verbs
relative pronouns
subject pronouns
present subjunctive
tener expressions


As a general rule, most nouns ending in o are masculine and those ending in a are feminine, but there are exceptions.
a. Feminine nouns such as agua, álgebra, and álguila, nouns with a stressed a, are preceded by the masculine el instead of the feminine la in order to avoid the ackward sound of la ... a.
b. Nouns ending in -ie, -ad, and -ud are always feminine.
Ex: la bondad, la libertad, la juventud, la universidad, la serie
c. Nouns ending in -ción , -sion and -umbre are always feminine.
Ex: la acción (action), la revolución (revolution), la cumbre (peak), la misión (mission)
d. Letters of the alphabet, sicknesses, islands and provinces are feminine.
Ex: la fiebre (fever), la Isla de Pinos, (the Isle of Pines (Cuba)), la hache (h)
e. Nouns referring to persons and animals can be masculine or feminine.
Ex: el novio (boyfriend, bridegroom); la novia (girlfriend, bride)
el primo (cousin); la prima (cousin)
el señor (gentleman, Mr.); la señora (lady, Mrs.)
el caballo (horse); la yegua (mare)
f. Nouns referring to a person's profession or social position often end in -ista, -ante, or -ente. These nouns do not change according to gender. The difference in gender is indicated by the masculine or feminine definite article.
Ex: el estudiante, la estudiante (student)
el artista, la artista (artist, performer)
el poéta, la poéta (poet)
el orden, la orden (order)
g. Nouns referring to numbers, days of the week, musical notes, cardinal points, conmpound words, names of trees, rivers, lakes, mountains, straits, and seas are masculine as well as nouns ending in -aje.
Ex: el garaje, el naranjo, el siete, el norte, el do, el lunes, el paraguas, el Canal de Panama, el Caribe
h. Some nouns that end in -ma are masculine.
Ex: el tema (subject), el idioma (language), el problema (problem).

Plural of Nouns

The plural of a noun is formed by adding either -s or -es to the noun. The formation of the plural can affect the accenting and spelling of the word.
Add -s to nouns ending in a vowel to form the plural.
Singular Plural
el gato los gatos
la silla las sillas
Add -es to nounes ending in a consonant to form the plural.
el árbol los árbol es
la verdad las verdades
el mes los meses
If a nouns ends in -z, change the -z to -c and add -es to form the plural.
la voz las voces
la luz las luces
el lápiz los lápices
The masculine plural form of Spanish nouns can include the female members of a group as well as the males.
los hijos sons son and daughter sons and daughters
los señores gentelmen Mr. and Mrs.  
los padres fathers father and mother fathers and mothers


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Jaime El Sabio